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List of Quality Assurance Interview Questions 2013

QA Online Training and Placement

Q. 111: What is Server Side Includes or SSI?

Server Side Includes or SSI is a mechanism by which we can include files using a special
type of HTML comment which is similar to the include feature of today’s scripting languages
like JSP & PHP etc.

Old type CGI programs and ASP scripts are still using Server Side Includes or SSI to include
libraries of code.

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Q. 112: What is the difference between Dynamic Analysis & Static Analysis?

Dynamic Analysis: refers to the process of testing and evaluation of a program by executing
data in real-time. The objective is to find errors in a program while it is running, rather than
by repeatedly examining the code offline. Smoke testing is a type of dynamic analysis.

Static Analysis: refers to a set of techniques of program analysis where the program is not
actually executed rather it is analyzed by some tools to produce the desired information.
Objective of performing static analysis to ensure soundness and completeness of the
program.

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Q. 113: What is Vulnerability Analysis?

Vulnerability Analysis is a process which defines, identifies, and classifies the security holes
or vulnerabilities in a computer, network, or communications infrastructure. It can be used
to predict the effectiveness of proposed countermeasures and evaluate their actual
effectiveness after they are implemented in actual practice.

Vulnerability Analysis or Vulnerability Assessment involves following steps:

# Defining and classifying network or system resources

# Assigning relative levels of importance to the resources

# Identifying potential threats to each resource

# Developing a strategy to deal with the most serious potential problems

# Defining and implementing ways to minimize the consequences if an attack occurs.

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Q. 114: What is a Vulnerability Scanner?

A vulnerability scanner is a tool for detecting & reporting genuine vulnerabilities in the
system. It uses an up-to-date database containing complete information necessary to check
a system for security holes. It provides facility to carry out multiple manual scans at a time.
Its reports provide recommendations for countermeasures to remove the vulnerabilities
detected by it.

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Q. 115: What is an Ethical Hacker?

Ethical hacker is a computer and network expert who legitimately attacks the security
system on behalf of the management with an objective to find vulnerabilities, which any
malicious hacker could exploit.

For testing a security system, ethical hackers use the same methods as malicious hackers,
but their aim is to report back the problems instead of taking advantage of out of them.
Ethical hacking is also known as penetration testing or intrusion testing.

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Q. 116: What is Database testing?

Database testing involves the following activities:

1) Testing of Data validity.

2) Testing of Data Integrity.

3) Performance testing related to the data base.

4) Testing of Procedure, triggers and functions.

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Q. 117: What are the things checked in Database Testing?

Following things are generally checked In Database Testing:

1) Validation of field size

2) Checking of constraints.

3) Checking of Indexes as to whether done or not.

4) Checking of stored procedures.

5) Checking as to whether the field size defined in the application is matching with that in
the database or not.

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Q. 118: What is High Order Testing?

High Order Testing is black-box testing conducted on the software after the completion of all
integration activities.

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Q. 119: What is Internationalization or I18N?

Internationalization refers to the development and testing relating to handling foreign text
and data within a software program in such a way that it will be easy to adapt it to several
international markets having different languages and cultures. Internationalization includes
sorting, importing and exporting text and data, correct handling of currency and date and
time formats, string parsing and upper / lower case handling etc.

Method of deriving the abbreviation I18N for Internationalization goes like this:

First, we take the first letter of the word Internationalization we want to abbreviate; in this
case the letter “I”. Next, we take the last letter in the word; in this case the letter “N”.
These become the first and last letters in the abbreviation. Finally, we count the remaining
letters in the word between the first and last letter. In this case. “nternationalizatio” has 18
characters in it. Thus we shall encapsulate the number 18 between the “I” and “N”; thus
making the final abbreviation as I18N.

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Q. 120: What is localization or L10N?

Localization refers to development, testing and adapting the software product to suit a local
or regional market. The objective of localization is to ensure suitability of the product with
language & cultural aspects of the users of a particular region.

localization includes translating the program, choosing appropriate icons and graphics, and
other cultural considerations. It also may include translating the program’s help files and
the documentation.

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Q. 121: What is Globalization G11N?

Globalization refers to the activities performed for the purpose of marketing a software
product in regional markets. The objective of globalization is to take care of global
marketing accounting for economic and legal factors. The main focus of globalization is on
marketing providing total enterprise solutions and a support to the management.

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Q. 122: What are the benefits of Software Validation?

Software validation is an important tool employed to assure the quality of the software
products. Few benefits are as under:

1) It increases the usability and reliability of the device software, resulting in reduced failure
rates, less recalls and corrective actions, less liability to device manufacturers.

2) It reduces the long term costs by making it easier and less costly to reliably modify
software and revalidate software changes.

3) It helps to reduce the long-term cost of software by reducing the cost of validation for
each subsequent release of the software.

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Q. 123: What is the role of Design Reviews in Software Development Life Cycle?

Design review is a primary tool for managing and evaluating software development projects.
Design reviews allow management to confirm that all goals defined in the software
validation plan have been achieved. Formal design reviews are more structured and include
participation from others outside the development team.

Design reviews are documented, comprehensive, and systematic examinations of a design
to evaluate the adequacy of the design requirements, to evaluate the capability of the
design to meet these requirements, and to identify problems.

Design reviews include examination of development plans, requirements specifications,
design specifications, testing plans and procedures, all other documents and activities
associated with the project.

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Q. 124: What is the need of Software Validation after a change?

When any change even a small one is made to the software, following activities need to be
performed:

1) Re-establishment of the validation status of the software.

2) Conducting necessary validation analysis – not for the sake of validation of the individual
change, but o to know the effect of the change on the entire software system.

3) Conducting suitable level of regression testing to show that unchanged but vulnerable
portions of the system have not been adversely affected. Regression testing is meant to
provide a confidence that the software has been validated after the change.

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Q. 125: What is Output Forcing?

Output Forcing is a sort of functional testing of software applications.

It refers to choosing test inputs to ensure that all or the selected software outputs are
generated by the testing.

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Tips for QA Analyst Interview Questions

Q. 101: What is the difference a Software Tester & Testing Analyst?

Testing analysts are more commonly involved with tasks at a higher level of abstraction,
such as test process design, test planning, and test case design.

Whereas Software Testers may be involved with test case design and test procedure
construction, and interaction with the actual software systems.

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Q. 102: What are Software Testing Specialities?

Testing specialties include test automation, load testing, usability testing, testing
methodology, software inspections, industry or application expertise, test metrics, test
management, white box testing & security testing etc.

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Q. 103: What can be the various Job Levels in the Software Testing Domain in a
Company?

Various job levels within the testing domain can include the tester, test analyst, test
manager or test specialist, test consultant or Test executive.

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Q. 104: What is a Test Suite?

Set of collection of test cases is called a test suite.

It contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It contains a
section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. It may also
contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions of the tests as well.

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Q. 105: What is a scenario test?

This is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex
problem or system.

Generally scenario test have following five key characteristics.

1) A story

2) Which is motivating

3) Which is credible

4) Which is complex

5) Which is easy to evaluate.

Scenario tests are different from test cases in a way that test cases cover single steps
whereas scenarios cover a number of steps. Test suites and scenarios can be used together
for a complete system test.

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Q. 106: What is Defect Tracking?

In engineering practice, defect tracking is the process of finding defects in a product by the
process of inspection, testing, or recording feedback from customers, and tracking them till
their closure.

In software engineering, defect tracking is of significant importance, since complex software
systems have thousands of defects due to which their management, evaluation and
prioritizing is a difficult task. Hence defect tracking systems in software engineering are
computer database systems which store defects and help people to manage them.

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Q. 107: What is Formal Verification in context with Software & Hardware systems?

Formal verification is the process of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with
respect to a certain formal specification or property, with the help of formal methods.
Generally the formal verification is carried out algorithmically.

Approaches to implement formal verification are :

1) State space enumeration

2) Symbolic state space enumeration

3) Abstract interpretation

4) Abstraction refinement

5) Process-algebraic methods

6) Reasoning with the help of automatic theorem provers like HOL or Isabelle.

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Q. 108: What is the concept of Fuzz Testing?

Fuzz testing is a software testing technique involving attachment of the inputs of a program
to a source of random data. Main advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is
extremely simple, and remains free of preconceptions about system behavior.

Fuzz testing is generally used in large software development projects which use black box
testing. Fuzz testing provides a high benefit to cost ratio.

Fuzz testing technique is also used for the measurement of quality of large software
systems. The advantage is that the cost of generating tests is relatively low.

Fuzz testing is helps to enhance the software security and software safety because it often
finds odd oversights and defects which normal human testers would fail to find, and even
the most careful human test designers would fail to create tests for.

Fuzz testing is not a substitute for exhaustive testing or formal methods; it can only provide
a random sample of the system’s behavior. Passing a fuzz test may only indicate that a
particular software is capable to handles exceptions without crashing and it may not indicate
its correct behavior.

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Q. 109: What are the different forms of fuzz testing?

1) Valid fuzz Testing to assure that the random input is reasonable, or conforms to actual
production data.

2) Simple fuzz Testing usually uses a pseudo random number generator to provide an input.

3) A combined approach uses valid test data with some proportion of totally random input
injected.

By using all the above techniques in combination, fuzz-generated randomness can test the
un-designed behavior surrounding a wider range of designed system states.

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Q. 110: What is a Web Application & How does it look like?

A web application is an internet based application, consisting of a set many scripts, which
are normally stored on some Web server and are made to interact with some databases or
any other similar sources of the dynamic content.

Web applications provide an interactive Form to the user, wherein feeds inputs according to
the fields provided in the form; then he clicks on a button like “Submit” or “OK” to store his
inputs on the database & perform a set of calculations & present back the desired
information.

Web Applications are becoming popular since these are a via media for exchange of
information between various service providers and respective customers across the internet.
These web applications are by & large not dependent on any platform. Popular examples of
Web applications are Google / Yahoo or similar search engines, Internet Banking websites of
several Banks, E-mail facility providing sites like Gmail, Yahoo Mail, Rediff Mail etc., Sale &
Purchase sites like E-Bay etc.

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Frequently Asked Questions In Manual Testing

Foremost Interview Questions of Manual Testing

Q. 91: What is LCSAJ?

LCSAJ means “Linear Code Sequence And Jump”. It consists of the following three items
like:

1) The start of the linear sequence of executable statements.

2) The end of the linear sequence.

3) The target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence.

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Q. 92: What is Measure of Completeness in software testing?

In software testing there are two measures of completeness, code coverage and path
coverage.

Code coverage is a white box testing technique to determine how much of a program’s
source code has been tested. There are several fronts on which code coverage is measured.
Code coverage provides a final layer of testing because it searches for the errors that were
missed by the other test cases.

Whereas Path coverage establishes whether every potential route through a segment of
code has been executed and tested.

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Q. 93: What is Pair Programming?

Pair Programming is a software development approach whereby lines of code of a
component are written by two programmers sitting at a single computer. This means
ongoing real-time code reviews are performed.

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Q. 94: What is N+1 Testing?

N+1 Testing is a variation of Regression Testing. It involves testing conducted with multiple
cycles in which errors found in test cycle ‘N’ are resolved and the solution is re-tested in test
cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and
there are no errors.

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Q. 95: What is Error Seeding?

Error Seeding is the process of intentionally adding known defects to those already in the
component or system for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and
estimating the number of remaining defects.

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Q. 96: What is Extreme Programming?

Extreme Programming called XP in short is a deliberate and disciplined approach to software
development.

XP is extremely successful since it lays maximum stress on the customer satisfaction. XP
methodology is designed to deliver the software as per the customer needs and at a time
when it is needed.

While following XP methodology the developers confidently respond to fast changing
requirements of the customer may be quite late in the life cycle.

XP methodology lays emphasis on an excellent team work. Managers, customers, and
developers are all part of a team dedicated to delivering quality software.

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Q. 97: What is the difference between an application server and a Web server?

Web server serves pages for viewing in a Web browser, while an application server provides
methods that client applications can call.

A little more precisely, we can say that, a Web server exclusively handles HTTP requests,
whereas an application server serves business logic to application programs through any
number of protocols.

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Q. 98: What is Cause Effect Analysis?

Cause effect analysis is an approach for studying the specifications carefully and identifying
the combinations of input conditions or causes and their effect in the form of a table and
designing test cases.

It is suitable for applications in which combinations of input conditions are few and readily
visible.

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Q. 99: What is Error Guessing?

Error guessing is a supplementary technique of test case design involving test case design
based on the tester’s intuition and experience. There is no formal procedure. However, a
checklist of common errors is taken for reference.

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Q. 100: What is Basis Path Testing?

Basis Path Testing is white box testing method involving design of test cases to cover every
statement, every branch and every condition in the code which has been written.

This method attempts statement coverage, decision coverage and condition coverage.

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Latest Quality Assurance Interview Questions With Solutions

Q. 81: What is configuration Management?

Configuration Management (or CM) is the processes of controlling, coordinating and tracking
the Standards and procedures for managing changes in an evolving software product.

Configuration Testing is the process of checking the operation of the software being tested
on various types of hardware.

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Q. 82: What is the role of QA in a software producing company?

Quality Assurance is responsible for managing, implementing, maintaining and continuously improving the
Processes in the Company and enable internal projects towards process maturity and
facilitate process improvements and innovations in the organization.

Tester is responsible for carrying out the testing efforts in the company.

In many companies QA person is responsible both the roles of Testing as well as creating
and improving the processes.

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Q. 83: What is Fuzz Testing?

Fuzz testing a technique of testing an application by feeding random inputs.

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Q. 84: What is Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)?

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis is a systematic approach to risk identification and analysis
of identifying possible modes of failure and attempting to prevent their occurrence.

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Q. 85: What is Path Testing?

Path Testing or Path Coverage is a white box method of testing which satisfies the coverage
criteria through which the program is tested across each logical path. Usually, paths through
the program are grouped into a finite set of classes and one path out of every class is
tested.

In Path Coverage flow of execution takes place from the start of a method to its exit. Path
Coverage ensures that we test all decision outcomes independently of one another

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Q. 86: What is Test Maturity Model or TMM?

Test Maturity Model or TMM is a five level staged framework for test process improvement,
related to the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) that describes the key elements of an
effective test process.

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Q. 87: What is Back-To-Back Testing?

Back-To-Back Testing refers to the testing process in which two or more variants of a
component or system are executed with the same inputs, the outputs compared, and
analyzed in cases of discrepancies.

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Q. 88: What is a Blocked Test Case?

Blocked Test Case refers to the test case, which cannot be executed because the
preconditions for its execution are not fulfilled.

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Q. 89: What is the difference between API & ABI?

Application Programming Interface (API) is a formalized set of software calls and routines
that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or
network services.

Whereas Application Binary Interface (ABI) is a specification defining requirements for
portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and
environments.

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Q. 90: What is I V & V?

I V & V means Independent Verification and Validation.

Verification typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code,
requirements, and specifications. Verification can be done with the help of checklists, issues
lists, walk throughs, and inspection meetings.

Whereas Validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are
completed.